kommunistische partei china englisch

The first plenum also endorses the composition of the Secretariat and the leadership of the CCDI. In the center of the upper-left corner (a quarter of the length and width to the border) is a yellow hammer-and-sickle 30 cm in diameter. [129] The first plenary session of a newly elected central committee elects the general secretary of the Central Committee, the party's leader; the Central Military Commission (CMC); the Politburo; the Politburo Standing Committee (PSC); and since 2013, the Central National Security Commission (CNSC). On October 6, 1923, the Comintern sent Mikhail Borodin to Guangzhou. [116] Informally, the collective leadership is headed by a "leadership core"; that is, the paramount leader, the person who holds the offices of CCP general secretary, CMC chairman and PRC president. [120] Currently, the CCP is claiming that "democracy is the lifeline of the Party, the lifeline of socialism". Klicken Sie einfach auf ein Wort, um die Ergebnisse erneut angezeigt zu bekommen. [59] This period lasted through four stages; the first was from August 1945 (when the Japanese surrendered) to June 1946 (when the peace talks between the CCP and the KMT ended). He believed that the KMT serves all the Chinese, and KMT members should not be divided into left or right. Sein Vater ist Politiker, schon früh wird klar, dass Li ebenfalls in die Kommunistische Partei eintreten will. [55] At every level of the party this was duplicated, with standing committees now in effective control. [77] Deng Xiaoping Theory can be defined as a belief that state socialism and state planning is not by definition communist, and that market mechanisms are class neutral. "[125] The party constitution gives the National Congress six responsibilities:[126], In practice, the delegates rarely discuss issues at length at the National Congresses. For example, on 10 October 2016, the local government of Mengmao Township, Ruili City, Yunnan Province released a concise fiscal revenue and expenditure report for the year 2014. [30] He was referred as "China's Lenin". The process, which literally translates to "double regulation", aims to extract confessions from members accused of violating party rules. Li was among the first leading Chinese intellectuals who publicly supported Leninism and world revolution. Aktivieren Sie JavaScript für mehr Features und höhere Geschwindigkeit beim Abfragen. [98] In addition, the party needs to react to the changing situation dynamically; to know if a certain policy is obsolete or not, the party had to "seek truth from facts" and follow the slogan "practice is the sole criterion for the truth". 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[116] The concept has its origins back to Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Bolshevik Party. With more than 91 million members, the CCP is the second largest political party in the world after India's Bharatiya Janata Party. [57] Despite their formal alliance, the CCP used the opportunity to expand and carve out independent bases of operations to prepare for the coming war with the KMT. [143] These relations are sought so that the CCP can learn from them. Niemand wird die Kommunistische Partei brechen, ohne auch das chinesische Volk zu brechen!" [120] In the words of the party constitution, "The Party is an integral body organized under its program and constitution and on the basis of democratic centralism". [116] A member of the Politburo Standing Committee often represents a sector; during Mao's reign, he controlled the People's Liberation Army, Kang Sheng, the security apparatus, and Zhou Enlai, the State Council and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. [159] According to the CCP constitution, a member, in short, must follow orders, be disciplined, uphold unity, serve the Party and the people, and promote the socialist way of life. [129] According to the party constitution, the general secretary must be a member of the Politburo Standing Committee (PSC), and is responsible for convening meetings of the PSC and the Politburo, while also presiding over the work of the Secretariat. [77], CCP General Secretary Jiang Zemin succeeded Deng as "paramount leader" in the 1990s, and continued most of his policies. Der absolute Führungsanspru… [70] By that time, Mao had begun saying that the "continued revolution under the dictatorship of the proletariat" stipulated that class enemies continued to exist even though the socialist revolution seemed to be complete, leading to the Cultural Revolution in which millions were persecuted and killed. To address these, Hu introduced two main ideological concepts: the Scientific Outlook on Development and Harmonious Socialist Society. Hinweis: Spenden an die LEO GmbH sind leider nicht steuerlich abzugsfähig. According to official statements by the CCP, the concept integrates "Marxism with the reality of contemporary China and with the underlying features of our times, and it fully embodies the Marxist worldview on and methodology for development. [161] Another group, the "Managing, professional and technical staff in enterprises and public institutions", made up 12.5 million, 9 million identified as working in administrative staff and 7.4 million described themselves as party cadres. "[155] To join, an applicant has to be between the ages of 14 and 28. Western countries have begun to reflect, and openly or secretively compare themselves against China's politics, economy and path. [134] The Secretariat is the top implementation body of the Central Committee, and can make decisions within the policy framework established by the Politburo; it is also responsible for supervising the work of organizations that report directly into the Central Committee, for example departments, commissions, publications, and so on. [167] On 28 April 1942, the Central Politburo decreed the establishment of a sole official flag. [76] In 1997, Deng's beliefs (Deng Xiaoping Theory), were embedded in the CCP constitution. [61], On 1 October 1949, Chairman Mao Zedong formally proclaimed the establishment of the PRC before a massive crowd at Tiananmen Square. Congressman Scott Perry introduced legislation to add the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to the Top International Criminal Organizations Target (TICOT) List and provide the United States law enforcement agencies a strategic directive to target the CCP's activity. [2] The party grew quickly, and by 1949 it had driven the Kuomintang (KMT)'s Nationalist Government from mainland China to Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War, leading to the establishment of the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949. [90] Before the "Practice Is the Sole Criterion for the Truth [zh]" campaign, the relationship between ideology and decision-making was a deductive one, meaning that policy-making was derived from ideological knowledge. [90] The CCP puts a great deal of effort into the party schools and into crafting its ideological message. [64] Then the Constitution of the PRC in 1954 changed the previous coalition government and established the CCP’s sole ruling system. The two countries' friendship has withstood the test of a changeable international situation, and the friendship has been further strengthened and consolidated. [188] Other differences are, according to the CCP, "that it is not a political party based on the working class—instead it is a political party of the elite. Selected Works of Jiang Zemin, Eng. Then the communists fully supported the KMT. [59] The KMT's successes were hollow; the CCP had tactically withdrawn from the cities, and instead attacked KMT authorities by instigating protests amongst students and intellectuals in the cities (the KMT responded to these events with heavy-handed repression). [97] While the CCP claims that China is in the primary stage of socialism, party theorists argue that the current development stage "looks a lot like capitalism". [194] By 2008, the CCP claimed to have established relations with 99 political parties in 29 Latin American countries. [155] A Standing Committee exercises the duties and responsibilities of the corresponding Party Committee when it is not in session. In 2014, only 2 million applications were accepted out of some 22 million applicants. Deutsche Kommunistische Partei : Deutsch - Englisch Übersetzungen und Synonyme (BEOLINGUS Online-Wörterbuch, TU Chemnitz) Ein Service der TU Chemnitz unterstützt von IBS und MIOTU/Mio2 . He helped Chen found the Shanghai Revolutionary Bureau, also known as the Shanghai Communist Group. After the KMT captured Wuhan in October 1926, the leftist movement promoted by the CCP and the Comintern quickly got out of control. [119] However, by the time of Jiang, the party had begun propagating a responsibility system, referring to it in official pronouncements as the "core of the collective leadership". [60] The result was that the CCP was able to cut off KMT garrisons in Manchuria and retake several lost territories. [123] All the parties in the United Front support China's road to socialism, and hold steadfast to the leadership of the CCP. [155][156] These committees play a key role in directing local policy by selecting local leaders and assigning critical tasks. [55], The Second Sino-Japanese War caused a pause in the conflict between the CCP and the KMT. Ihr Schwerpunkt liegt auf Persönlichkeiten, die in der Volksrepublik China als Vorbilder gelten, d. h. einen erzieherischen Vorbildcharakter für Soldaten, Arbeiter, Jugendliche und Kinder haben sollen. [158], —Communist Party of China Admission Oath[159], To join the party, an applicant must be approved by the communist party. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "kommunistische Partei" – Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Englisch-Übersetzungen. [110], Deng did not believe that the fundamental difference between the capitalist mode of production and the socialist mode of production was central planning versus free markets. [135] The CMC is the highest decision-making institution on military affairs within the party, and controls the operations of the People's Liberation Army. [69], During the 1960s and 1970s, the CCP experienced a significant ideological separation from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. [63] Leadership was largely selected based on rules and norms on promotion and retirement, educational background, and managerial and technical expertise. [91] Lastly, Chinese policy-makers believe that the Soviet Union's state ideology was "rigid, unimaginative, ossified, and disconnected from reality" and that this was one of the reasons for the dissolution of the Soviet Union. An China ist nichts kommunistisch außer der Name der Partei. While the CCP still maintains party-to-party relations with non-ruling communist parties around the world, since the 1980s it has established relations with several non-communist parties, most notably with ruling parties of one-party states (whatever their ideology), dominant parties in democracies (whatever their ideology) and social democratic parties. [124], The National Congress is the party's highest body, and, since the 9th National Congress in 1969, has been convened every five years (prior to the 9th Congress they were convened on an irregular basis). [114] The insistence that globalization is not fixed in nature comes from Deng's insistence that China can pursue socialist modernization by incorporating elements of capitalism. 3: 192 cm in length and 128 cm in width; no. [24] Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, both were professors at Peking University. [27] The CCP continued supporting the Wuhan KMT,[50] On 15 July 1927 the Wuhan KMT finally expelled all communists. [155], A local party congress has many of the same duties as the National Congress, and it is responsible for examining the report of the local Party Committee at the corresponding level; examining the report of the local Commission for Discipline Inspection at the corresponding level; discussing and adopting resolutions on major issues in the given area; and electing the local Party Committee and the local Commission for Discipline Inspection at the corresponding level. [123] Despite all this, the CPPCC is a body without any real power. [117] At the level of the central party leadership this means that, for instance, all members of the Politburo Standing Committee are of equal standing (each member having only one vote). "[106], The 3rd Plenary Session of the 16th Central Committee conceived and formulated the ideology of the Scientific Outlook on Development (SOD). 2: 240 cm in length and 160 cm in width; no. [181], The ruling party which the CCP is most interested in is the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV). Geben Sie hier Ihren kompletten Text ein und klicken Sie dann auf ein Wort. [40] Chiang Kai-shek, Sun's assistant, was not actively anti-Communist at that time,[41] even though he hated the theory of class struggle and the CCP's seizure of power. Chen Duxiu hoped that the communists would completely withdraw from the KMT. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'Kommunistische Partei Chinas' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. [25] Chen was very passionate about anarchism until Grigori Voitinsky went to China. This is the only system that can give full expression to democracy with full powers vested in the people's congresses at all levels and, at the same time, guarantee centralized administration with the governments at each level exercising centralized management of all the affairs entrusted to them by the people's congresses at the corresponding level and safeguarding whatever is essential to the democratic life of the people". [118] Before Jiang Zemin's tenure as paramount leader, the party core and collective leadership were indistinguishable. Liste Europa. [56] The Second United Front was established between the CCP and the KMT to tackle the invasion. "[155] No party organization, including the CCP central leadership, can deprive a member of these rights. In China ist das die Kommunistische Partei. [193] The CCP credits the European social democrats with creating a "capitalism with a human face". [114] Because of this there is considerable optimism within the CCP that despite the current capitalist dominance of globalization, globalization can be turned into a vehicle supporting socialism. "[123] This process is institutionalized in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC). [59] With the cooperation of the Americans and the Japanese, the KMT was able to retake major parts of the country. III, p. 519. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFLi2009 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFYu2010 (, Guo, Baogang. [99] At the 14th National Congress, Jiang reiterated Deng's mantra that it was unnecessary to ask if something was socialist or capitalist, since the important factor was whether it worked. The CCP is officially organized on the basis of democratic centralism, a principle conceived by Russian Marxist theoretician Vladimir Lenin which entails a democratic and open discussion on policy on the condition of unity in upholding the agreed-upon policies. [169] In another instance, Pierre Laurent, the National Secretary of the French Communist Party (PCF), met with Liu Yunshan, a Politburo Standing Committee member. [120] The goal of democratic centralism was not to obliterate capitalism or its policies but instead it is the movement towards regulating capitalism while involving socialism and democracy. [192] Of special fascination for the CCP is the 71-year-long rule of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) in Mexico. [92] Mao Zedong Thought was conceived not only by Mao Zedong, but by leading party officials. Mao claimed that the superiority of democratic centralism lay in its internal contradictions, between democracy and centralism, and freedom and discipline. [139] The CCP currently has four main central departments: the Organization Department, responsible for overseeing provincial appointments and vetting cadres for future appointments,[140] the Publicity Department (formerly "Propaganda Department"), which oversees the media and formulates the party line to the media,[141][142] the International Department, functioning as the party's "foreign affairs ministry" with other parties,[143] and the United Front Work Department, which oversees work with the country's non-communist parties, mass organizations, and influence groups outside of the country. The Three Represents defines the role of the Communist Party of China, and stresses that the Party must always represent the requirements for developing China's advanced productive forces, the orientation of China's advanced culture and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people. [113] They insist that socialism, on the basis of historical materialism, will eventually triumph over capitalism. Data for the proportion of total CCP organizations’ expenditures in total China fiscal revenue is unavailable. Die kommunistische Partei um Präsident Xi Jinping nutzt in China den Fußball als Vorzeigebeispiel für ihr Streben nach einer gleichförmigen Gesellschaft. Li Lisan was able to assume de facto control of the party organization by 1929–30. [80] Unlike Mao, Deng and Jiang Zemin, Hu laid emphasis on collective leadership and opposed one-man dominance of the political system. [192] While the CCP attributed the PRI's long reign in power to the strong presidential system, tapping into the machismo culture of the country, its nationalist posture, its close identification with the rural populace and the implementation of nationalization alongside the marketization of the economy,[192] the CCP concluded that the PRI failed because of the lack of inner-party democracy, its pursuit of social democracy, its rigid party structures that could not be reformed, its political corruption, the pressure of globalization, and American interference in Mexican politics. With other social factors, the conflicts culminated in the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests. However, occasionally small local governments in China release such data. Frank Pieke, The Good Communist: Elite Training and State Building in Today’s China (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009). [73] In reversing some of Mao's "leftist" policies, Deng argued that a socialist state could use the market economy without itself being capitalist. But this shift has brought us closer to classical Marxism. [185] At the 4th Plenary Session of the 16th Central Committee, which discussed the possibility of the CCP learning from other ruling parties, praise was heaped on the PCC. According to the party constitution, the CCP adheres to Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, socialism with Chinese characteristics, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development, and Xi Jinping Thought. Noch nicht registriert? "A Partocracy with Chinese Characteristics: Governance System Reform under Xi Jinping.". The dimension of the pole hem is not included in the measure of the flag. [197] On August 17, 2020, Cai Xia was expelled from the CCP's Central Party School and her retirement pensions were cancelled. The Central Committee of the CCP,[35] Joseph Stalin,[36] and the Comintern[37] all hoped that the CCP would control the KMT, even though they differ in strategy and timing. Officially, the CCP is committed to communism and continues to participate in the International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties each year. [196], In June 2020, Cai Xia, a retired professor of CCP's Central Party School, voiced criticisms against Xi Jinping, the General Secretary of the CCP, in which she compared Xi to a "mafia boss" and the ruling Communist Party a "political zombie". "[97] Some have dismissed the concept of a primary stage of socialism as intellectual cynicism. [171] While the CCP retains contact with major parties such as the PCP,[169] PCF,[170] the CPRF,[172] the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia,[173] the Communist Party of Brazil,[174] the Communist Party of Nepal[175] and the Communist Party of Spain,[176] the party retains relations with minor communist and workers' parties, such as the Communist Party of Australia,[177] the Workers Party of Bangladesh, the Communist Party of Bangladesh (Marxist–Leninist) (Barua), the Communist Party of Sri Lanka, the Workers' Party of Belgium, the Hungarian Workers' Party, the Dominican Workers' Party and the Party for the Transformation of Honduras, for instance. "[111] Despite this, the 3rd Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee upheld the creed "Maintain the dominance of the public sector and strengthen the economic vitality of the State-owned economy. [141] The CC also has direct control over the Central Policy Research Office, which is responsible for researching issues of significant interest to the party leadership,[144] the Central Party School, which provides political training and ideological indoctrination in communist thought for high-ranking and rising cadres,[145] the Party History Research Centre, which sets priorities for scholarly research in state-run universities and the Central Party School,[146] and the Compilation and Translation Bureau, which studies and translates the classical works of Marxism. Dies ist eine Liste von Persönlichkeiten der Kommunistischen Partei Chinas (Abk. [96] However, party theorist Leng Rong disagrees, claiming that "President Jiang rid the Party of the ideological obstacles to different kinds of ownership [...] He did not give up Marxism or socialism. Voitinsky met Li, and then successfully turned Chen into a communist. Und China ist auch nicht als Demokratie verkleidet. [120] According to Mao, democratic centralism "is centralized on the basis of democracy and democratic under centralized guidance. [107] It is considered to be Hu Jintao's contribution to the official ideological discourse. Sie können aber jederzeit auch unangemeldet das Forum durchsuchen. [193] By the 1980s, that view had changed and the CCP concluded that it could actually learn something from the social democratic movement. [104] Jiang disagreed, and had concluded that attaining the communist mode of production, as formulated by earlier communists, was more complex than had been realized, and that it was useless to try to force a change in the mode of production, as it had to develop naturally, by following the economic laws of history. Leo Trotzki: Die Kommunistische Partei Chinas und die Guomindang [Nach Schriften 2.1, Hamburg 1990, S. 103-112, dort mit umfangreichen Fußnoten] Fakten und Dokumente aus dem politischen Leben Chinas in jüngster Zeit geben eine eindeutige Antwort auf die Frage nach den weiteren Beziehungen zwischen der KP und der Guomindang. [182] In general the CPV is considered a model example of socialist development in the post-Soviet era. [155] The party committees "of a county (banner), autonomous county, city not divided into districts, or municipal district [are] elected for a term of five years", but full and alternate members "must have a Party standing of three years or more. [193] With the exception of a short period in which the CCP forged party-to-party relations with far-right parties during the 1970s in an effort to halt "Soviet expansionism", the CCP's relations with European social democratic parties were its first serious efforts to establish cordial party-to-party relations with non-communist parties. [72] Deng, alongside Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang, spearheaded the Reform and opening policy, and introduced the ideological concept of socialism with Chinese characteristics, opening China to the world's markets. [155] A Standing Committee is responsible to the Party Committee at the corresponding level and the Party Committee at the next higher level. [138], A first plenum of the Central Committee also elects heads of departments, bureaus, central leading groups and other institutions to pursue its work during a term (a "term" being the period elapsing between national congresses, usually five years). [59] The second stage, lasting from July 1946 to June 1947, saw the KMT extend its control over major cities, such as Yan'an (the CCP headquarters for much of the war). [131] The PSC is the party's highest decision-making institution when the Politburo, the Central Committee and the National Congress are not in session. To try to Leo Trotzki: Kommunistische Partei und Guomindang [Nach Schriften 2.1, Hamburg 1990, S. 222-227, dort mit umfangreichen Fußnoten] Ich glaube, die neue Situation macht es erforderlich, die Frage der Beziehungen zwischen KP und Guomindang noch einmal zu überprüfen. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten Aussprache und relevante Diskussionen Kostenloser Vokabeltrainer [91], Marxism–Leninism was the first official ideology of the Communist Party of China. [59] By 1945, the KMT had three-times more soldiers under its command than the CCP and initially appeared to be prevailing.

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