pantheon in rome wikipedia

English: An image of Pantheon in Rome, Italy. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes. On peut voir su… An empirical relationship gives a tensile strength of 1.47 MPa (213 psi) for this specimen. The overall effect is immediate viewer orientation according to the major axis of the building, even though the cylindrical space topped by a hemispherical dome is inherently ambiguous. Enshrined on the apse above the high altar is a 7th-century Byzantine icon of the Virgin and Child, given by Phocas to Pope Boniface IV on the occasion of the dedication of the Pantheon for Christian worship on 13 May 609. In 2013, it was visited by over 6 million people. He was the last Savoy to be buried there, as his son and successor Victor Emmanuel III died in exile and was buried in Egypt until his remains were transferred to Vicoforte near Cuneo in 2017. En grec ancien, πᾶν (pãn) signifie « tout » et θεός (theos), « dieu ». The altar with the royal arms is by Cirilli. Mark Wilson Jones has attempted to explain the design adjustments carried out in relating the porch to the dome, arguing that the Pantheon's porch was originally designed for monolithic granite columns with shafts 50 Roman feet tall (weighing about 100 tonnes) and capitals 10 Roman feet tall in the Corinthian style. She reexamined Herbert Bloch's 1959 paper, which is responsible for the commonly maintained Hadrianic date, and maintains that he should not have excluded all of the Trajanic-era bricks from his brick-stamp study. [3] The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43 metres (142 ft).[4]. It was originally built as a temple to the gods of Ancient Rome, and rebuilt about 126 AD during Hadrian 's reign. [51] The materials used in the concrete of the dome also vary. [44] This substitution was probably a result of logistical difficulties at some stage in the construction. Le premier bâtiment du Panthéon a été bâti par Agrippa, général et homme politique romain, sous Auguste, vers -25 (25 av. [50] However, analysis of the fusion technique confirmed that these are the original Roman doors,[49] a rare example of Roman monumental bronze surviving, despite cleaning and the application of Christian motifs over the course of centuries. Pantheon, Rome - Wikipedia. 0 Panthéon - Piazza della Rotonda - Rome 2.JPG 3,788 × 2,526; 7.63 MB [34] On its consecration, Boniface placed an icon of the Mother of God as 'Panagia Hodegetria' (All Holy Directress) within the new sanctuary.[35]. The sarcophagus was given by Pope Gregory XVI, and its inscription reads ILLE HIC EST RAPHAEL TIMUIT QUO SOSPITE VINCI / RERUM MAGNA PARENS ET MORIENTE MORI, meaning "Here lies Raphael, by whom the mother of all things (Nature) feared to be overcome while he was living, and while he was dying, herself to die". La construction du Panthéon a commencé en 27 avant J.C. sous la direction de Marcus Agrippa et est lun des rares monuments de lancienne Rome encore intact. However, Paul the Deacon records the spoliation of the building by the Emperor Constans II, who visited Rome in July 663: Remaining at Rome twelve days he pulled down everything that in ancient times had been made of metal for the ornament of the city, to such an extent that he even stripped off the roof of the church [of the blessed Mary], which at one time was called the Pantheon, and had been founded in honour of all the gods and was now by the consent of the former rulers the place of all the martyrs; and he took away from there the bronze tiles and sent them with all the other ornaments to Constantinople. Place du Panthéon, a square in Paris; Pantheon, London, an 18th-century place of entertainment; Pantheon of National Revival Heroes, a Bulgarian national monument and ossuary; Pantheon, Moscow, a planned but uncompleted memorial … On the left side is a canvas by Clement Maioli of St Lawrence and St Agnes (1645–1650). While more recent archaeological diggings have suggested that Agrippa's building might have had a circular form with a triangular porch, and it might have also faced north, much like the later rebuildings, Ziolkowski complains that their conclusions were based entirely on surmise; according to him, they did not find any new datable material, yet they attributed everything they found to the Agrippan phase, failing to account for the fact that Domitian, known for his enthusiasm for building and known to have restored the Pantheon after 80 AD, might well have been responsible for everything they found. Nous connaissons mieux le panthéon des Grecs et des Romains. Fu fondato nel 27 a.C. dall'arpinate Marco Vipsanio Agrippa, genero di Augusto. The Pantheon is a circular building with a portico supported granite Corinthian columns. [9] In fact, the concept of a pantheon dedicated to all the gods is questionable. The third niche has a sculpture by Il Lorenzone of St Anne and the Blessed Virgin. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhof (1973). Its Roman concrete dome is 4535 metric tons. The Governance of Rome. ISBN 0-521-84202-6 Loewenstein, Karl. 4 nov. 2016 - Pantheon panorama, Rome - 6 - Panthéon (Rome) — Wikipédia The Pan­theon is a state prop­erty, man­aged by Italy's Min­istry of Cul­tural Her­itage and Ac­tiv­i­ties and Tourism through the Polo Muse­ale del Lazio; in 2013 it was vis­ited by over 6 mil­lion peo­ple. On the right wall is the Incredulity of St Thomas (1633) by Pietro Paolo Bonzi. Le Panthéon est un temple que les Grecs et les Romains consacraient à certains de leurs dieux, par exemple le Panthéon de Rome, dédié à tous les dieux. Certainly the word pantheus or pantheos, could be applicable to individual deities. [55] This reduced the weight of the roof, as did the elimination of the apex by means of the oculus.[56]. The Panthéon (French: [pɑ̃.te.ɔ̃], from the Classical Greek word πάνθειον, pántheion, ('temple to all the gods') is a monument in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France.It is located in the area known as the Latin Quarter, standing atop the Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, at the center of the Place du Panthéon which was named after it. The bronze epigram commemorated Pope Clement XI's restoration of the sanctuary. To the sides are paintings (1661) by Francesco Cozza, one of the Virtuosi: Adoration of the Shepherds on left side and Adoration of the Magi on right. [10] Ziegler tried to collect evidence of panthea, but his list consists of simple dedications "to all the gods" or "to the Twelve Gods", which are not necessarily true pantheons in the sense of a temple housing a cult that literally worships all the gods. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43.3 metres (142 ft), so the whole interior would fit exactly within a cube (or, a 43.3-m sphere could fit within the interior). [43] The taller porch would have hidden the second pediment visible on the intermediate block. Die plein buite die Panteon dra dieselfde naam - Piazza della Rotonda. Celui des Égyptiens nous est également assez bien connu (le panthéon égyptien doit être considéré spirituellement différent par rapport à ceux de la Grèce et de Rome[réf. The first chapel on the left, is the Chapel of St Joseph in the Holy Land, and is the chapel of the Confraternity of the Virtuosi at the Pantheon. Ce terme désigne aussi l'ensemble des dieux d'une mythologie ou d'une religion. [74], The portico-and-dome form of the Pantheon can be detected in many buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries; numerous government and public buildings, city halls, university buildings, and public libraries echo its structure. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. While this building helped buttress the rotunda, there was no interior passage from one to the other. In the walls at the back of the Pantheon's portico are two huge niches, perhaps intended for statues of Augustus Caesar and Agrippa. Revenir à la page « Panthéon (Rome) ». At its thickest point, the aggregate is travertine, then terracotta tiles, then at the very top, tufa and pumice, both porous light stones. "[28] Whatever the cause of the alteration of the inscription might have been, the new inscription reflects the fact that there was a change in the building's purpose.[29]. [46] These were dragged more than 100 km (62 miles) from the quarry to the river on wooden sledges. "[12], Since the French Revolution, when the church of Sainte-Geneviève in Paris was deconsecrated and turned into the secular monument called the Panthéon of Paris, the generic term pantheon has sometimes been applied to other buildings in which illustrious dead are honoured or buried. The large bronze doors to the cella, measuring 4.45m wide by 7.53m high, are the oldest in Rome. It was originally dedicated to the Holy Spirit. [21], The form of Agrippa's Pantheon is debated. There, they were transferred back onto barges and pulled up the Tiber River to Rome. It had long been thought that the current building was built by Agrippa, with later alterations undertaken, and this was in part because of the Latin inscription on the front of the temple[19] which reads: or in full, "M[arcus] Agrippa L[ucii] f[ilius] co[n]s[ul] tertium fecit," meaning "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, made [this building] when consul for the third time. [64] The oculus also serves as a cooling and ventilation method. Umberto was buried in the Pantheon in Rome, by the side of his father Victor Emmanuel II, on 9 August 1900. ; Le Panthéon de Rome est un temple, magnifiquement conservé, de l'Antiquité romaine, dédié à tous les dieux. Pantheon in Rome: The History Behind Its Perfect Ancient Architecture. Le Panthéon est un temple que les Grecs et les Romains consacraient à certains de leurs dieux, par exemple le Panthéon de Rome, dédié à tous les dieux. It is made from several materials, including marble, granite, concrete and brick.The Parthenon is a Doric temple supported by ionic columns. Hidden chambers engineered within the rotunda form a sophisticated structural system. Pantheon adalah sebuah bangunan kuil berbentuk bulat yang dibina dari tahun 27 SM sehingga ia diselesaikan pada zaman pemerintahan Maharaja Hadrian (118 SM-28 M) pada tahun 126 M di pusat kota Roma. Buildings. The tomb of King Umberto I and his wife Margherita di Savoia is in the next chapel. [11], Godfrey and Hemsoll point out that ancient authors never refer to Hadrian's Pantheon with the word aedes, as they do with other temples, and the Severan inscription carved on the architrave uses simply "Pantheum". [51] Finite element analysis of the structure by Mark and Hutchison[53] found a maximum tensile stress of only 0.128 MPa (18.5 psi) at the point where the dome joins the raised outer wall. À propos de Wikipédia; Avertissements; Rechercher. The marble interior has largely survived, although with extensive restoration. The Pantheon is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). The bust of Raphael (1833) is by Giuseppe Fabris. The tomb consists of a large bronze plaque surmounted by a Roman eagle and the arms of the house of Savoy. 19.10), but the current inscription could not be a copy of the original; it provides no information as to who Agrippa's foundation was dedicated to, and, in Ziolkowski's opinion, it was highly unlikely that in 25 BC Agrippa would have presented himself as "consul tertium." On 23 July 1725, the Pantheon was established as Cardinal-deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres, i.e. Par extension, on appelle Panthéon un monument où sont déposés les corps des hommes illustres d'une nation. The Pantheon (UK: /ˈpænθiən/, US: /-ɒn/;[1] Latin: Pantheum,[nb 1] from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). Autres résolutions : 320 × 208 pixels | 640 × 415 pixels | 1 024 × 664 pixels | 1 280 × 831 pixels | 3 218 × 2 088 pixels. A competition was held to decide which architect should design it. [14] Godfrey and Hemsoll maintain that the word Pantheon "need not denote a particular group of gods, or, indeed, even all the gods, since it could well have had other meanings. An ionic frieze runs around its exterior walls. Image taken by Martin Olsson (mnemo on wikipedia and commons,, 2nd of May 2005. Throughout the day, the light from the oculus moves around this space in a reverse sundial effect. File:Jakob Alt - Das Pantheon und die Piazza della Rotonda in Rom - 1836.jpg. Par exemple : le panthéon grec, égyptien, hindou. The Pantheon (UK: / ˈ p æ n θ i ə n /, US: /-ɒ n /; Latin: Pantheum, from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). The Pantheon: Design, Meaning, and Progeny. The Pantheon (UK: / ˈ p æ n θ i ə n /, US: /-ɒ n /; Latin: Pantheum, from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). In the second chapel is the tomb of King Victor Emmanuel II (died 1878). Masses are celebrated there on Sundays and holy days of obligation. In the early decades of the 20th century, a piece of the original, as could be reconstructed from Renaissance drawings and paintings, was recreated in one of the panels. Her argument is particularly interesting in light of Heilmeyer's argument that, based on stylistic evidence, Apollodorus of Damascus, Trajan's architect, was the obvious architect. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio. The choir was added in 1840, and was designed by Luigi Poletti. Filippo Brunelleschi, among other architects, looked to the Pantheon as inspiration for their works. Kuil ini turut digunakan sebagai gereja dari tahun 609 sampai 1885 serta sebagai suatu tempat pemakaman bagi … The golden lamp above the tomb burns in honor of Victor Emmanuel III, who died in exile in 1947. "[22], The only passages referring to the decoration of the Agrippan Pantheon written by an eyewitness are in Pliny the Elder's Natural History. It was moved to the Chapel of the Annunciation, and then to its present position sometime after 1837. Langue; Suivre; Modifier; Fichier; Historique du fichier; Utilisation du fichier; Usage global du fichier; Métadonnées; Taille de cet aperçu : 417 × 599 pixels. 1676 x 1200 jpeg 773kB. Even by the year 200, there was uncertainty about the origin of the building and its purpose: Agrippa finished the construction of the building called the Pantheon. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history and, since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been in use as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Latin: Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". "[33] Twenty-eight cartloads of holy relics of martyrs were said to have been removed from the catacombs and placed in a porphyry basin beneath the high altar. The dome features sunken panels (coffers), in five rings of 28. Het Pantheon is een van de best bewaard gebleven Romeinse gebouwen ter wereld. On the vault are several 17th-century canvases, from left to right: Cumean Sibyl by Ludovico Gimignani; Moses by Francesco Rosa; Eternal Father by Giovanni Peruzzini; David by Luigi Garzi; and Eritrean Sibyl by Giovanni Andrea Carlone. Ce terme désigne aussi l'ensemble des dieux d'une mythologie ou d'une religion. On the left wall is a Descent of the Holy Ghost (1790) by Pietro Labruzi. The east pediment narrates the birth … [41] Concerning this, an anonymous contemporary Roman satirist quipped in a pasquinade (a publicly posted poem) that quod non fecerunt barbari fecerunt Barberini ("What the barbarians did not do the Barberinis [Urban VIII's family name] did"). ISBN 978-90-247-1458-2 MacDonald, William L.. Bearing in mind also that the Greek word θεῖος (theios) need not mean 'of a god' but could mean 'superhuman', or even 'excellent'. [48] Thus, it was necessary to either drag them or to move them on rollers to the construction site. The royal tombs are maintained by the National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs, founded in 1878. Les panthéons nationaux pouvaient s'augmenter d'ajouts étrangers : ainsi les Égyptiens adoptèrent Astarté, les Romains Isis, les Grecs modifièrent le panthéon des autres peuples pour le coller au leur, les Phéniciens accueillirent Hathor (dame de Byblos), les Asiatiques possédaient tous un Baal national, les Carthaginois adoptèrent les dieux grecs, etc. The Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. 3864 x 2577 jpeg 1636kB. This refers to the confraternity of artists and musicians that was formed here by a 16th-century Canon of the church, Desiderio da Segni, to ensure that worship was maintained in the chapel. Nevertheless, it became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, and has been copied many times by later architects. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned … [52], No tensile test results are available on the concrete used in the Pantheon; however, Cowan discussed tests on ancient concrete from Roman ruins in Libya, which gave a compressive strength of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). It was rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. [5] The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. [65][66] In antiquity, the coffers may have contained bronze rosettes symbolising the starry firmament. Pantheon, Rome, a temple to the gods of ancient Rome, now a Roman Catholic church building; Panthéon, Paris, a commemorative monument and burial place . Dans l'Antiquité, les villes étaient créées sous l'égide d'un dieu protecteur de la ville (« divinité poliade »), et le fondateur trouvait sa légitimité en s'affirmant être le fils d'un dieu (surtout chez les Grecs). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2005). Domitian rebuilt the Pantheon, which was burnt again in 110 AD. [5], The pediment was decorated with relief sculpture, probably of gilded bronze. The interior of the dome was possibly intended to symbolize the arched vault of the heavens. In the third chapel is a 15th-century painting of the Umbrian school, The Madonna of Mercy between St Francis and St John the Baptist. nécessaire]). It is also known as the Madonna of the Railing, because it originally hung in the niche on the left-hand side of the portico, where it was protected by a railing. This description was widely accepted until the late 20th century. As a result, the interior decorative zones do not line up. Most of the bronze was used to make bombards for the fortification of Castel Sant'Angelo, with the remaining amount used by the Apostolic Camera for various other works. Fichier:Pantheon panorama, Rome - 6.jpg. Het is een herbouw van een eerder pantheon op deze plaats dat in 80 door brand werd verwoest. Pembangunan kuil ini diselesaikan pada masa pemerintahan Kaisar Hadrian (118 SM-28 M) pada tahun 126 M. Hadrian membangun kuil ini untuk penyembahan terhadap dewa-dewa Romawi. The present arrangement is from 1811, designed by Antonio Muñoz. Pantheon (Grieks: πάς pas = elke / θεός theos = god) betekent '(gewijd aan) alle goden’. The bust is a portrait of Cardinal Agostino Rivarola. Giuseppe Sacconi participated, but lost – he would later design the tomb of Umberto I in the opposite chapel. They were floated by barge down the Nile River when the water level was high during the spring floods, and then transferred to vessels to cross the Mediterranean Sea to the Roman port of Ostia. Two kings of Italy are buried in the Pantheon: Vittorio Emanuele II and Umberto I, as well as Umberto's Queen, Margherita. [72] Others include the Rotunda of Mosta in Malta (1833). Dernière modification le 23 novembre 2020, à 17:19. Alternatively, it has also been argued that the scale of the portico related to the urban design of the space in front of the temple. Each zone of the interior, from floor to ceiling, is subdivided according to a different scheme. Pantheon, The Ancient Roman Building - Het Pantheon is een antieke tempel in Rome uit de 2e eeuw n.Chr. a titular church for a cardinal-deacon. The chapel was originally dedicated to St Michael the Archangel, and then to St. Thomas the Apostle. The top of the rotunda wall features a series of brick relieving arches, visible on the outside and built into the mass of the brickwork. There are three memorial plaques in the floor, one conmmemorating a Gismonda written in the vernacular. This evenly spaced layout was difficult to achieve and, it is presumed, had symbolic meaning, either numerical, geometric, or lunar. Jump to navigation Jump to search. It is also substantially larger than earlier domes. Le mot « panthéon » peut désigner trois notions différentes : . The best known of such structures is the Pantheonof Rome, first built by Marcus Agrippaas part of a complex created by him on his own property in the Campus Martiusin 29–19 BC. le panthéon égyptien doit être considéré spirituellement différent par rapport à ceux de la Grèce et de, Centre national de ressources textuelles et lexicales, Liste des divinités de la mythologie grecque, Portail de l’architecture et de l’urbanisme,éon&oldid=167126828, Portail:Architecture et urbanisme/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. The thickness of the dome varies from 6.4 metres (21 ft) at the base of the dome to 1.2 metres (3.9 ft) around the oculus. It was commissioned by Raphael and made by Lorenzetto in 1524. Hadrian membangun kuil ini untuk penyembahan terhadap dewa-dewa Romawi. [25], The Augustan Pantheon was destroyed along with other buildings in a huge fire in the year 80 AD. Dio appears to be the only near-contemporaneous writer to mention the Pantheon. Dedication made to the Deus Invictus by a Roman legionary in Brigetio, Pannonia Invictus ("Unconquered, Invincible") was in use as a divine epithet by the early 3rd century BC. The checkerboard floor pattern contrasts with the concentric circles of square coffers in the dome. On the first niche to the left of the entrance is an Assumption (1638) by Andrea Camassei. Today, it is not known what gods were included. Le contenu est disponible sous licence CC BY-SA 3.0 sauf mention contraire. [26], The degree to which the decorative scheme should be credited to Hadrian's architects is uncertain. [59] It is the only masonry dome to not require reinforcement. Holes marking the location of clamps that held the sculpture suggest that its design was likely an eagle within a wreath; ribbons extended from the wreath into the corners of the pediment.[42]. The final niche on this side has a statue of St. Evasius (Sant'Evasio) (1727) by Francesco Moderati. Much fine external marble has been removed over the centuries – for example, capitals from some of the pilasters are in the British Museum. During storms, a drainage system below the floor handles the rain that falls through the oculus. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. J.-C). Lexington books, Toronto, 2007, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCinti2007 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFWilson-Jones2000 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRoss2000 (, Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism, M[arcus] Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Aug[ustus], S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs, List of the oldest buildings in the world, "Nuova guida metodica di Roma e suoi contorni – Parte Terza ("New methodic guide to Rome and its suburbs – Third Part")", Another view of the interior by Panini (1735), Liechtenstein Museum, Vienna, "Pantheon, The ruins and excavations of ancient Rome",, "Hooping as an Ancient Remedy for Conservation of Large Masonry Domes", Official webpage from Vicariate of Rome website, Tomás García Salgado, "The geometry of the Pantheon's vault", Panoramic Virtual Tour inside the Pantheon, Roman Catholic ecclesiastical province of Rome, Boncompagni Ludovisi Decorative Art Museum, Museo Storico Nazionale dell'Arte Sanitaria,,_Rome&oldid=992354073, 2nd-century religious buildings and structures, Ancient Roman buildings and structures in Rome, Conversion of non-Christian religious buildings and structures into churches, Buildings converted to Catholic church buildings, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Articles containing Italian-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of, This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 20:44.

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